How To Study

PREFACE 7 INTRODUCTION 11 I. THE PROPER MENTAL ATTITUDE 18 (a) Distinction between reading and understanding 20 (b) Distinction between facts, opinions, and logical conclusions 23 (c) Importance of the questioning habit 25 (d) Inquiring into methods of ascertaining facts 31 (e) Studying evidence of reliability of a writer 32 (f) Importance of caution. 36

PREFACE 7 INTRODUCTION 11 I. THE PROPER MENTAL ATTITUDE 18 (a) Distinction between reading and understanding 20 (b) Distinction between facts, opinions, and logical conclusions 23 (c) Importance of the questioning habit 25 (d) Inquiring into methods of ascertaining facts 31 (e) Studying evidence of reliability of a writer 32 (f) Importance of caution. 36 (g) Importance of the scientific attitude of mind 37 (h) Intellectual modesty 37 (i) Wisdom rather than knowledge the aim 41 II. STUDYING UNDERSTANDINGLY 45 (a) Importance of definite ideas 48 (1) Use of the dictionary 50 (2) Practice in definition 52 (3) Importance of the study of logic 54 (b) Stating a thing in different ways 58 (c) Stating a thing negatively as well as positively 59 (d) Observation of necessary qualifying words or phrases 62 (e) Reflection, illustration, and application 64 (f) Keeping the mind active 69 (g) Study of causes of differences of opinion 70 (h) Discrimination of mere assertion from proof 71 III. SYSTEM 77 (a) Importance of grasping the fundamental idea 77 (b) Preliminary arrangement of ideas 80 (c) Classification and arrangement 81 IV. MENTAL INITIATIVE 84 (a) Interest in subject of study essential 85 (b) Formulation of problem essential 87 (c) Independent work essential 87 (d) Drawing conclusions independent of author 89 (e) Independence in arriving at conclusions 91 (f) Generalizing 92 (g) Going beyond the book 92 (h) Visualizing results 93 V. HABITS OF WORK 94 (a) Selection of book 94 (b) Proper number of subjects to be studied at once 95 (c) Haste undesirable 97 (d) Taking studies seriously 97 (e) Judicious skipping 98 (f) Systematic program of work 98 (g) Cultivation of concentration 99 (h) Applying what is learned 100 (i) Avoidance of indifference 100 (j) Thorough knowledge of a few books 100 (k) List of references should be made 101 (l) Frequent reviews desirable 102 (m) Regular times for recreative study 103 (n) Physical exercise essential 103 SUGGESTIONS TO TEACHERS 104 IMPORTANCE OF REFUSING TO BE DISCOURAGED, AND OF SEEKING THE WORK ONE CAN DO BEST 107 REFERENCES 110